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Now, the object of finding a biased wheel is to gain an advantage over the casino. The table shows the percentage advantage attainable dependent upon the frequency of a number showing. If a number shows on the average every 34 spins, then we have gained a 5.88% edge over the casino. If the frequency is once every 30 spins, our advantage increases to a whooping 20.00%. And if we are fortunate enough to ever find a situation where a number shows with a frequency of once every 20 spins, our advantage in playing this number is 80.00%
There have been a number of players who have found and exploited roulette wheels. We recall Joseph Jaggers' success in 1873. In the period from 1969 to 1971, Dr. Richard W. Jarecki won about $1,280,000 playing at San Remo and Monte Carlo using biased wheel play.
The Billy Walters syndicate during different periods from 1986 to 1989 won over $4,400,000 in Atlantic City and $400,000 in Las Vegas!
Obviously, the rewards of finding and exploiting a balanced wheel can be rather extraordinary. But how difficult is it to find such a wheel?
The only tried and proven legal way of accomplishing this is to clock, that is, record the numbers of a roulette wheel as they are spun and analyze them, much as Jaggers did in 1873.
Obviously, a handheld computer would be very helpful, but such devices are banned in most casinos, and use of a computer or similar device in a casino in Nevada may even earn you jail time.
So the only practical way of identifying a potentially biased wheel is to record and analyze the results of spins.
A significant amount of mathematical analysis has been done in determining the minimum number of spins which should be tallied in order to determine if a wheel is truly biased. To be reasonably sure that a wheel is biased you should record a minimum of 800 spins. In the United States, with an average number of spins of 100 an hour, this would take eight hours. At the slower European rate of 40 an hour, accumulating a sample of 800 spins would take twenty hours.